Safe programming is a subset of correct programming -- every exploitable vulnerability is, basically, a bug such that the consequences of exercising the bug are advantageous to an ill-intentioned individual (the "attacker").
There is no paradigm that is inherently less safe than any other; however, lack of a defined paradigm is assuredly less safe. Safe programming, ultimately, is about a developer who knows what he is doing, and this comes from discipline.
Edit: "Discipline" means never writing any code whose complete behaviour, under all possible combinations of normal and abnormal input data, is not fully understood by the developer. In particular, it implies not throwing code together and tweaking until the thing accepts to run. Similarly, copy&pasting from Stack Overflow is poor discipline -- reading solutions on SO is very fine, but it must be followed by thorough understanding of what the code does.