Should Exceptions be shown to the user?
Displaying exception messages is bad practice. Exceptions should be used to debug the code, they should not be used to display something to the user.
If you use the same mechanism - exceptions - for both tasks, it will be very difficult to separate between them. Eventually, you will either show an exception message with too much information, or you will log an exception with not enough information.
Additionally, exception messages generally do not make for good usability. Why would a user care that there was an error in the exception handler? What are they supposed to do with this information? Most users would not know what an exception handler is, and would be confused by such a message.
Is this information disclosure?
As you noted, you do disclose information through this message (you are using Laravel). And it's also searchable via google, so if for example a new vulnerability in Laravel is found, someone may search google for this error message to find a lot of Laravel installations to attack. This means that with this message, you may theoretically draw attention and attacks towards you.
On the other hand, disclosing used software (without the exact version) is often quite hard to prevent, and sometimes not even desired.
It's really a judgement call if you want to call this information disclosure or not. If you eg take the definition of CWE-200:
An information exposure is the intentional or unintentional disclosure
of information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have
access to that information.
The information either
is regarded as sensitive within the product's own functionality, such as a private message; or
provides information about the product or its environment that could be useful in an attack but is normally not available to the
attacker, such as the installation path of a product that is remotely
So the question is if you think that a user is not authorized to know that you are using Laravel, and if you think that this information is not normally available.
You do leak some - quite minor - information for no good reason, which may have a small impact on security and usability.
You should instead display a useful error message if possible, or a generic error message if not.