Recently, I had a Mac which fried its video logic board. Luckily, Apple had concluded that this was a design flaw and was fixing the affected models for free (see more here). However, I did not find this page for a while, and during that time had to think about recovering my data. So, I looked around the interwebs and found single-user mode.

When the computer is off, press the Power On button while holding the down the command and s keys. Keep holding these down, and instead of booting to the Apple loading screen, it boots to the underlying Unix terminal. Once there, you can enter the following commands:

mount -uw /
cd /Users/

And all of the users' home folders are displayed. Continuing to cd into these folders and ls to view contents, you can browse all of the users' files, without needing a password.

I then found that you are also able to plug in a USB stick and copy files to it (or from it), or perform actions on the files such as move and delete.

While this was helpful for me recovering data from my fried Mac, how is this a good idea? If I ever got hold of the MacBook of a friend and it was locked, I could just shut it down, boot into single-user mode and mess with their files - or even make a copy of them to a USB stick for later use. Macs are used by many people, a lot of whom have very important files that they need to protect.

This obviously isn't a bug, as Apple has a support article on how to enter single-user mode. I also know that one of the original purposes of single-user mode is to reset your password if you lost it, but giving access to the entire computer through the command line does not seem like a good way to go about it.

So, is this a problem? Is single-user mode bad? As far as I see it it is a security hole, but I could be missing something.

  • 88
    No matter what platform, login screens don't really protect any data from a physical attack. The only true mitigation is full disk encryption. May 18, 2016 at 22:52
  • 10
    @SuiciDoga Naw, you can attach a NAND reader to the board and dump all the data in a few minutes. Bypassing a locked bootloader is much easier than bypassing full disk encryption.
    – Navin
    May 19, 2016 at 7:51
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    It's worth noting, but doesn't answer your question per se, that the single user mode traces its lineage very far back in UNIX history, quite likely to the very beginnings (and OS X is a UNIX descendant, so shares this history). On many systems, entering single user mode requires the root password (because unprotected single user mode is indeed a security risk), and on all systems, it is meant for low-level system maintenance that cannot be performed when the system is up and running.
    – user
    May 19, 2016 at 9:39
  • 10
    OSX isn't a "UNIX descendant," it's UNIX. unix.stackexchange.com/questions/1489/is-mac-os-x-unix
    – Dan Pritts
    May 19, 2016 at 20:09
  • 7
    OS X is a BSD descendant/derivative. BSD is a unix-like operating system that descended from the original Unix. The Unix trademark is owned by "The Open Group" and a few years ago, Apple started paying them for certification as a "Unix" variant. tldr; depending on what your definition of Unix is, it's either a descendent, variant or "third cousin twice removed" who married back into the family or something like that. May 22, 2016 at 6:09

4 Answers 4


Physical access is total access, right? How is this any worse than a boot CD or yanking the hard drive and popping it into another system?

Not that I'm a fan of OSX or this particular feature, but if someone has physical access to a computer with an unencrypted disk, they have access to everything on that disk anyway, so single user mode doesn't make that any worse, either.

  • 12
    Sure it does, it makes it easier to access the data. Physically removing part of the computer, versus rebooting and holding down a key? May 19, 2016 at 7:34
  • 23
    @immibis there is also booting from USB, or even target disk mode: support.apple.com/en-us/HT201462
    – Peter
    May 19, 2016 at 7:52
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    So what about if the Mac is in a school environment or an office or a library? Someone could use this to install some malicious software or a keylogger or something else nefarious. They don't have to be an intruder, just a student or someone that normally has access rights to the computer. The "physical access is total access" thing is BS when you actually put it in context. Of course a student isn't going to be able to take the HDD out of the computer, but it's a lot easier to do something malicious at a software level. May 19, 2016 at 17:02
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    @JamEngulfer 1) A student most definitely could pop out the hard drive of a computer. I did that very thing myself on the computers in my school's library, back when I was in 8th grade, IIRC. 2) A boot disk, which is another example I provided, provides an even greater level of access than OSX's single-user mode. 3) Physical access is total access, yes, with very few caveats. (Cold boot attacks against encrypted disks being a great example of how that is so.) Your personal feelings and unfounded assertions to the contrary don't change that. May 19, 2016 at 17:08
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    @JamEngulfer iMacs didn't exist when I was that age, so in that particular instance, it was more like a normal desktop PC. That doesn't really change anything, though. With a couple simple tools, anyone can open an iMac or a MacBook and get the harddrive out inside a minute. It's a mistake to think that kids can't or won't do that because it requires a spudger and a screwdriver. May 19, 2016 at 17:32

If FileVault is enabled, then you would need the FVDE credentials for one of the FVDE users in order to access single-user mode, even if you move the solid-state drive to a new machine.

However, if you are trying to prevent an end user from accessing an Administrator account (and/or the root account), FileVault is not sufficient because of single-user mode. One can enter single-user mode using their FVDE credentials, remount the filesystem as you demonstrate, and then rm /var/db/.AppleSetupDone to re-run the OS X Setup Assistant where a new Administrator account can be added, and which will have FVDE credentials.

In other words, you can protect files if you enable FileVault, but you cannot prevent someone with at least one FVDE credential from accessing everything as root because of single-user mode.


There's a misconception about this. The problem actually isn't the single-user mode. For example consider the following scenario:

Someone gets hands on your laptop. No harddrive-encryption and no BIOS-password. Now he has several options. Just to name two of them:

  • Get the harddrive out of the laptop and simply use it from another PC. Getting around any file-protection like file-owners defined by the system isn't exactly hard, since he can simply use sudo/the admin-account/whatever way of getting highest privilege his OS provides and simply alter the ownership the way he likes. On some macbooks this might get a bit difficult, depending on the way the harddrive is built into the machine.
  • Boot from another OS via a Bootable USB and retrieve the files via this OS.

Or the short version:

Law #3: If a bad guy has unrestricted physical access to your computer, it's not your computer anymore

From the 10 immutable Laws of Computer Security. The singleuser-mode just provides a simple ways to access the files without using any trivial workaround.

So: How do I protect my files?
First of all and pretty obvious: use disk-encryption, to prevent anyone from accessing the harddrive without password. OS X provides FileVault/FileVault2 for this purpose, which encrypts the data using XTS-AES 128. This would prevent anyone who doesn't have a registered account on the machine from booting the machine/accessing the files. But you can even take this one step further, by using a firmware-password (sometimes also referred to as EFI-password), to prevent your machine from booting from any other OS than your drive. In addition access to user-mode, Recovery and a few other features is denied to unauthorized users as well. So activating FileVault and using a firmware-password should be enough to prevent anyone except you from accessing your files. The only option that would remain would be to remove the harddrive and break the password. In other words: you can't get much more security on this attack-vector.

  • 7
    "since the harddrive can't be removed in a simple way on most macbooks." I have removed the hard drive from my 2012 Macbook Pro no fewer than five times this month for various reasons. It takes me four minutes, they're not exactly hard to get to.
    – user24386
    May 19, 2016 at 15:57
  • 1
    @Undo I should've been more clear on this point. I meant on most new macbooks. Laptops and especially apples products tend to be more and more difficult to disassemble. Most new laptops don't even allow to remove the battery without opening the casing.
    – user83938
    May 19, 2016 at 16:29
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    The Retina MacBook's drive is just another chip surface mounted to the motherboard — it would definitely take more than four minutes to transfer that to another machine. Conversely, the drive in my MacBook Air is just a daughterboard. No problem.
    – Tommy
    May 20, 2016 at 19:06

In addition to protecting the drive with FileVault 2's full-disk-encryption, you can disable single user mode by setting a firmware password. This will prevent other users who can decrypt the drive, such as a multi-user machine, from access the single user mode, among other things.

From Use a firmware password on your Mac:

To protect the data on your Mac, you can set a user account password to prevent unauthorized users from logging in. You can also encrypt your startup disk using FileVault so that unauthorized users can't read the data stored on your Mac without the right password.

For additional protection, you can also set a firmware password on your Mac. A firmware password prevents your Mac from starting up from any device other than your designated startup disk.

Though not specifically mentioned in the excerpt above, it disables single user mode (and the recovery partition) without first entering the firmware password, as it will only boot the default startup disk/partition without the password.

Of course, the firmware password does not protect against physically removing the drive and reading it from another machine, but used in tandem with FileVault 2 it can safeguard against other users with access to the machine.

  • 3
    Yeah but you can move the solid-state drive to a new machine or any user with root access can disable the firmware password from inside the OS
    – atdre
    May 18, 2016 at 23:17
  • @atdre How can you disable the firmware password from inside the OS? The only bypass I'm aware of was removing RAM sticks one at a time and rebooting in the old models (doesn't work anymore). May 18, 2016 at 23:20
  • 2
    With the firmware password utility
    – atdre
    May 18, 2016 at 23:44
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    Single-user mode isn't accessible, but recovery mode is
    – atdre
    May 18, 2016 at 23:49
  • 3
    @atdre Recovery mode shouldn't be without the password, it never was in the years I've used it. May 18, 2016 at 23:50

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