Is there any option to protect EXIF data against editing or provide password protection? I came accross the idea of creating executable file from image file, so that someone can view image the way is defined with no possibility to modify. Is this possible? Are there any other solutions?
EXIF data is metadata. Basically any (unencrypted) metadata can be altered anytime with access to (a copy of) the file.
Your idea of creating an executable to open images and protect EXIF data seems a bit like building a underground bunker just for storing the labels on and tabs in a physical folder.
Apart from the practical problems like system rights for running executables, possible antivirus detection, compatibility problems. You'll probably also get around this protection by screen capturing techniques like screenshots, screen recording and making actual photo's of the screen with another device. Or printing and rescanning it.
Secondly, the standardised metadata (EXIF) will be useless (for other applications and OS) when you put it in an executable container.
Why and in what environment would you possibly like to protect EXIF data? Maybe log it and monitor for changes in it?