Will the created containers still be bitwise comparable?
No. Veracrypt stores different containers with different encryption keys, even if you use the same password. So the containers won't be bitwise identical. You'll need to open the container and compare the files rather than compare the container.
How robust will the containers be against data loss, e.g. when a (different) sector in each container fails, will the rest of the data still be extractable?
Veracrypt stores two copies of the volume metadata, one at the front, and one at the end of the volume. Additionally, you can backup the volume header to make it possible to restore the volume if both embedded metadata is corrupted.
Veracrypt encrypts in XTS mode, which means that data corruption in one block only affects that block.
However, you should consider that modern hard disk are very good at detecting and self correcting for errors. They do this by encoding the data in such a way that there are redundant information to allow the hard disk to recompute corrupted bits, the general technique is called error correcting code.
In addition, if you use a modern filesystem in your host system, like btrfs or zfs, modern filesystem adds additional checksums to automatically detect errors and they can also be configured on RAID configuration so they can automatically make redundant copy when storing files so they can automatically repair errors to protect against media degradation. Due to their design, it's nearly impossible that you'll get silent corrupted data due to media degradation with modern filesystem.
The only practical failure scenario for modern filesystem is bugs in the filesystem implementation and user errors. You have a much better likelihood of accidentally
rm -f container.tc-ing your data. And for a catastrophic physical disk failure where the entire hard disk just stopped working, in which a backup on the same device would not be able to help you. To protect against these, you would want to make a backup copy of your data on multiple devices and migrate to a new storage media probably once every 5-7 years.