Yes - disable ALL networking (Mobile, WiFi, Bluetooth, ...)!
You can still make calls and use SMS. But beware of ever turning networking back on, because depending on your settings the phone might log where you have been and then upload that into the "cloud".
But that's not really practical. The most reasons why people want a smartphone require internet access.
There is a complete open-source Android called Replicant. This wouldn't allow Google to track you, but is still not completely open. It is probably the best you can get at the moment, but it supports very few (older) devices and is far from complete.
And of course remember that while Google/Apple/Microsoft won't be able to track you, your mobile provider always can. And because of various SS7 insecurities, probably everyone else on the planet who cares can also track your location at cell level if he has your number, IMSI,IMEI,...