I was looking into how easy it would to have your location tracked on your cell phone, would any of these types of phones offer more protection? (assuming you couldn't turn off your location on a smart phone ).
All mobile phones transmit, so an IP phone connects via wireless networks, a cell phone connects via towers and a satellite phone connects, well, via satellites. Which means signal is traceable. If you are important enough, you can be tracked.
All of these services have location facilities - but how useful they are can depend on who is trying to find out the location.
Mobile phone service providers have triangulation data from cell towers, and law enforcement can generally gain access to this data (in disasters, other groups may also be given access). It is reasonably accurate (to within a few metres)
Satellite phones are not as simple to locate, but locations can typically be worked out in a similar way to the efforts to find Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. The last transponder communications gave search organisations an arc of possible locations. In that case, because there were only a couple of pings, the arc was incredibly long, and across inhospitable ocean, so finding the wreckage was very difficult. If your communication was targeted, it would be possible to narrow down the arc considerably, and if you had to connect to multiple satellites, each one would give a different arc - locating your general area to greater and greater precision over time. Short calls could provide protection here.
IP phones leak routing data, which could be used to locate you to within WiFi range, and with some analysis of data, range from the wireless access point is possible. Routing through a number of networks, and obfuscating where possible will help - although calls suffer badly when this is too extreme.