It may seem crazy to you, but I wasn't able to find any detailed description of these security protocols on the web (except wikipedia).
Can you point me out some documentation of the protocols implementations?
To add to Gurzo's list, here are a few other links with diagrams:
For the actual references:
Proper usage of SSL/TLS also depends on other factors. In general, X.509 certificates will also be used and verified using the PKIX specification (not an easy read if you're new to the field). (Other types of certificates/authentication methods can be used in some cases.) You may also want to tie this up with the certificate host name verification: RFC 2818 (section 3.1) (HTTPS) and RFC 6125 (more general). These are not part of SSL/TLS as such, but are part of the overall picture to establish a secure connection.
(If you're also after the difference between SSL, TLS and their usage modes such as STARTTLS, you may also want to have a look at this rather detailed answer on ServerFault I wrote a few weeks ago.)