Is there any harm to be expected, if I just clicked on such a link described in this question?
A short and obvious answer to your question's header "Can a simple webpage link contain any virus or do harm to my system?" is YES! Yes, your system can be easily compromised by exploiting lots of vulnerabilities in various components of the web browser, e.g. plugins.
In addition to this - your details can be collected by the attacker to conduct a recon/scan on the collected IP.