Are there any web sites where one can visit to see the latest disclosed vulnerabilities in order to further develop IT security research skills and keep up-to-date?
Another good source of general information are Linux distros' security lists, which provide announcements of fixed vulnerabilities in their software. A small selection:
MITRE provides some feeds of CVEs.
Generally Twitter is a very useful resource for both vulnerabilities and general infosec news. Specifically who is going to be need specific.
Team Cymru's blog is a good resource.
https://www.exploit-db.com/ is good for finding POCs for exploits
This is likely the most comprehensive of officially disclosed vulns: https://nvd.nist.gov/
Ultimately, if you want actionable resource for an enterprise that doesn't consume your time analyzing you are going to need to pay for a service.