I have developed one web application that is in core-php as per the client's requirement. My client conducted a vulnerability test, and found a Cross-Frame Scripting as a vulnerability at hard level.

What can be done in this case to avoid it? Is there any better choice available?

  • you need to sanitize then validate ALL user input. – dandavis Dec 7 '16 at 16:43
  • @Jedi: in one form or another, it will always be all you need to do. Shaggie: if you could be more specific about the issue we can be more specific about mitigation. – dandavis Dec 7 '16 at 22:16

Cross-frame scripting allows an attacker to embed your website within their own, as a frame/iframe and then spy on the users of your website.

This requires some social engineering. An attacker would trick someone into visiting their web page, with an iframe containing (say) the login to your website. The parent website would also need to have some malicious Javascript to read keystrokes to capture login. Theoretically, browsers have a same-origin policy that should prevent the attacker from being able to do this, however in reality this attack is possible, often due to browser bugs.


  1. As per the W3 spec, you should include the Content Security Policy frame-ancestors header in your HTTP response to prevent your website being loaded in a frame. Some older browsers may not have support for this header, so also use the X-Frame-Options header with value DENY, SAMEORIGIN or ALLOW-FROM uri. X-Frame-Options takes precedence over CSP frame-ancestors in some browsers.

  2. You could additionally have some Javascript "frame-breaker" code that will prevent your website from being "framed" in older browsers.

These solutions and more details are discussed on this OWASP cheatsheet.

  • "however in reality this attack is possible, often due to browser bugs" Do you have any examples? I did not know about this. – Anders Dec 7 '16 at 15:46
  • @Anders: clickjacking comes to mind. – dandavis Dec 7 '16 at 16:42
  • @dandavis While I agree that clickjacking should be taken seriously, I would not call that a browser bug violating the SOP. And I don't see how it could be used to read key strokes. – Anders Dec 7 '16 at 17:48
  • @Anders: agree the keystroke part doesn't make sense; why would someone start logging in to siteB from siteA, or, if the typing is on siteB, how would siteA get the key codes? bug-based escapes are rare now... @Jedi: X-Frame-Options is deprecated, probably better not to recommend it still... – dandavis Dec 7 '16 at 17:56
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    @Jedi Thanks for the link! Old, but still very interesting! Took the liberty to edit it into your answer. – Anders Dec 7 '16 at 20:45

From this and this best place to get more info on issue

@*Prevent Cross-Frame Scripting attacks*@
    (function (window) {
        if (window.location !== window.top.location)
            window.top.location = window.location;
  • You should explain in more detail what this does and how it prevents XSS – Machavity Jun 8 '18 at 0:47
  • added hyperlink 1 and 2 in answer has detailed explanation. – Kurkula Jun 8 '18 at 2:51
  • And if those websites go offline your answer loses all value – Machavity Jun 8 '18 at 2:54
  • @Kurkula Unfortunatly this is not secure. Check the paper in my Answer – Guillaume Beauvois Jun 8 '18 at 8:33

I can't find the related question where I found this link but here is a paper about FrameBusting and how you should implement it.

Written by Gustav Rydstedt, Elie Bursztein and Dan Boneh from the Stanford University with the collaboration of Collin Jackson of the Carnegie Mellon University

This is the paper recommandation :

    body {display: none; }
    if (self === top) {
        document.getElementsByTagName("body")[0].style.display = 'block';
    } else {
        top.location = self.location

Notice the display: none, this is super important, because attacker can just disable javascript on part of your page. See the paper for more informations.

  • Where do you place this code? If you place it in the main parent page/layout, making body display none will hide the page completely. – Kurkula Jun 12 '18 at 4:56

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