Sometimes we need to prove that a file was not created in advance - a good example is warrant canaries. The person releasing them may have been forced to sign the file with a future timestamp. For example, AutoCanary uses recent news headlines which is a very secure method, assuming the adversary can't predict future (or obviously manipulate the source of these headlines).

Question: What are other secure ways to prove that a file was not created in advance?

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    How about use en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trusted_timestamping
    – rkosegi
    Dec 17, 2016 at 13:48
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    I misunderstood what you said, and I think your title is misleading. The solution you've accepted doesn't imply the file wasn't created in advance at all. It simply implies the file has been made accessible after some time T. Now, of course you can include something extra in the file from the "future", but at that point you're cheating -- the real contents were already there; you just added something extra. There's no way to prove the other contents weren't there.
    – user541686
    Dec 18, 2016 at 0:40
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    I don't really understand your warrant canary example. The whole premise of warrant canaries is that you can't be compelled to write/sign them; but if you can, then there's no difference between being compelled to write/sign them with a future date vs. being compelled to write/sign them at that future date . . . is there? What am I missing?
    – ruakh
    Dec 18, 2016 at 6:26
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    @Mehrdad This should be used in conjunction with signing. Dec 18, 2016 at 10:38
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    If an adversary can (a) force someone to sign the file with a future timestamp and (b) force that someone to release that file in the future, then all the suggested ways are vulnerable to the same adversary forcibly obtaining the signing keys, signing the 'canary' themselves whenever needed according to the suggested ritual (e.g. recent headlines) and releasing the signed file. On the other hand, if you are able to revoke compromised keys, then the same revocation will also make the pre-signed files useless, since they carry the future timestamp but are signed with an old key.
    – Peteris
    Dec 18, 2016 at 14:17

2 Answers 2


If all parties can trust a common randomness beacon (like the NIST Randomness Beacon), this can be achieved by including a recent block from the beacon into the file along with its timestamp. The recipients then, in addition to verifying the signature, must also verify that the beacon data is authentic and as recent as they require.

Other public random values might also do the trick, for example, the winning numbers of a well-publicized lottery. But care needs to be exercised however that the items chosen have sufficient entropy. For example, if you just pick the closing value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, that's been a 6- or 7-digit value for decades, so an attacker could just force you to precompute signatures for all likely future values of the index. The closing values of a list of stocks that all participants agree on beforehand might do the trick, though I'd want to do some calculations first to convince myself that the list has sufficient entropy.

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    This requires you to trust a centralized source. Bitcoin blockchain could be a very good solution, couldn't it? Dec 16, 2016 at 23:15
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    @SamuelShifterovich: Probably, modulo certain assumptions. In particular: 1) the blockchain will continue to grow indefinitely (rather than stopping once mining is no longer profitable), 2) no single entity will ever control >50% of the computing power in the Bitcoin network (because otherwise they can manipulate the blockchain in possibly undesirable ways), 3) there isn't some fundamental cryptographic weakness in the Bitcoin protocol.
    – Kevin
    Dec 17, 2016 at 7:11
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    For instance, Autocanary links as an example to riseup.net/en/canary, which, at the moment when I am writing, uses the link to the news headline https://theintercept.com/2016/08/15/fact-check-911-happened/ as proof that it was created after 2016/08/15. It doesn't look very secure to me; "fact check 9/11 happened" is a very generic title that could have appeared basically at any moment after 2001. Dec 17, 2016 at 19:57
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    @FedericoPoloni Indeed. Some kind of breaking news that is more of an event, not a headline is very efficient compared to something that is more of a website-specific article, like that The Intercept one. Dec 17, 2016 at 22:46
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    @Kevin Though some manipulation of the Bitcoin blockchain could happen, it does not mean much if you just want to prove freshness. Regardless of how large a fraction of the processing power an adversary controls, any hashes precomputed by the adversary cannot cover later transactions. So anybody who is creating transactions would know whether their transactions are included in the chain in a timely fashion, which would prove freshness of the hash at the head of the chain.
    – kasperd
    Dec 18, 2016 at 12:09

I don't see how the headline matches the post, so please allow me to go with the post and in accordance with the comments:

One simple way to register the existence of a document or file is to use the blockchain.

http://www.cryptograffiti.info/ - allows you to post anything, like a hash of the file along with a news headline, and it will be there forever, date and time stamped. You can leave a simple love note or whatever you like, and it is permanent.

Here is an interesting article on how the Canadians used the blockchain to do a proof of existence of a new law, on the blockchain.


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