I have received call from international number (0012024558888). After receiving it I cut the call as it was irrelevant to me and I did not give any information to them. Now I doubt it as spam/scam call. My question is that can they hack personal information from my mobile (like messages etc,.)?
Very unlikely. I have never heard of an exploit in any cellphone operating system which can be exploited by taking a call from a malicious caller. If there were something like that, it would likely have made some news headlines, because it would be a huge vulnerability which would affect millions of end-users and would likely get widely exploited not just by criminals but also by juvenile pranksters.
It's not possible to prove a negative, though. Maybe there is some obscure vulnerability I have never heard of. But that's really nothing you should worry about unless you are a target which is so valuable that you are worth burning a zero-day exploit on.
AFAIK, as Philipp said, there are no known exploits from simply receiving a phone call. It is possible to exfiltrate data from a compromised computer via a voice channel but that isn't really very useful with a mobile phone as you would be unlikely to know whether the phone was in the vicinity of the machine.
It might be interesting to know about the caller though ...
The number you've given is one of Google's used for verifying identity in two-factor authentication.
There are 3 possibilities I can think of:
You turned on or otherwise triggered Google 2FA. In that case, the call was legitimate even if unexpected.
Someone else managed to turn on or trigger Google authentication on your Google account. In that case, perhaps someone is trying to mess with you.
The number identification was spoofed to get around call blockers. As caller-id spoofing is all too easy, this is a very likely scenario.
Personally, I always wait for a second or two when answering a call from an unrecognised number. This is usually enough to know whether you are being cold called.