I went to download the latest firmware for my router and noticed the download link is not HTTPS, so I sent the following email to the manufacturer:

I went to look for new firmware for my Archer C7 router, but I saw that the download link is over unencrypted HTTP, not secure HTTPS. I would never download software or firmware over an unsecure connection. Please upgrade your site to HTTPS.

This was their reply:

The device will verify the integrity and correctness of the bin file, if it is tampered, it won't be able to upgrade successfully. Don't worry, you can download it.

Ignoring the fact that they have no excuse for not using HTTPS, my question is: Is it even possible for the router to confirm that a new firmware file hasn't been tampered with? How would that work?

  • 21
    The accepted answer establishes that it is possible in principle for the router to securely validate a firmware image downloaded over HTTP. Of course, that doesn't mean your router actually does this. Another (sadly plausible) explanation for the response you've received is that the router has "integrity and correctness" checks that simply validate that the file is a well-formed firmware image, without checking any signatures, and that the tech support employee who answered your query doesn't understand the difference between validating a file format and validating a signature.
    – Mark Amery
    Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 21:49
  • 8
    The implication that HTTPS somehow makes a downloaded firmware image safe is kind of silly. Either you're super-paranoid (in which case you require extended validation, not just SSL), or you're not (in which case HTTPS doesn't give you any real benefit here).
    – Sneftel
    Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 23:10
  • 7
    Also, it baffles me how much people worry about HTTP security. For this to be unsafe someone has to be actively tampering with your connection right now. Are you really that valuable of a target? Have you been annoying a government somewhere or something? If you really think everybody's out to get you, just download from different locations and verify the hashes are equal, and that you get plausible results when you Google that hash. If you think someone's compromised the company's side of the connection, then realize it's unlikely it'll stay that way for long before they notice...
    – user541686
    Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 0:47
  • 2
    @Machavity Not necessarily, Stack Exchange allows posting questions (and viewing the rest of the site) using HTTPS, but it doesn't require it. Commented Jan 14, 2017 at 1:04
  • 4
    @oldmud0: There's a huge difference in executing potentially-tampered-with code and reading a potentially-tampered-with question on SO. Making fun of people's legitimate concerns about obtaining and running code from unsafe channels is not appropriate for this site. The really sad thing is that, if OP were asking about how they got infected with a virus, people like you would probably be insulting them for downloading and running exes from sketchy sites. They can't win. Commented Jan 14, 2017 at 3:34

4 Answers 4


Sure - it could be a signed image. If the router has a built-in public key, and the image was signed by the corresponding private key, it would be perfectly safe.

Unless someone had got the private key, and uploaded a malicious version to the server, in which case, HTTPS wouldn't help either.

  • Well the if old firmware has a know vulnerability couldn't someone possibly detect and interfere with the transfer and then attack knowing your system is un-updated?
    – user123931
    Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 19:58
  • 2
    Why bother? Most attackers will just try all possible attacks, regardless of whether they are likely to work - and an attacker who was specifically targeting a given user doesn't need to wait until they try download a firmware update.
    – Matthew
    Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 20:25
  • 2
    "and uploaded a malicious version to the server" - not necessarly - it is sufficient for attacker to perform MITM via, for example DNS/DHCP/ARP spoofing. Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 22:13
  • 2
    Not if it's a signed image - if they don't have the correct private key, any data they change would make the firmware signature incorrect. They could tamper with the download, but it wouldn't install, assuming a working signature validation method.
    – Matthew
    Commented Jan 12, 2017 at 22:17
  • 2
    Although "technically correct" the image is not verified by public key on the router, that or the private key has been leaked. There exists an OpenWRT image that uses this mechanism to install itself on the Archer C7. wiki.openwrt.org/toh/tp-link/tl-wdr7500
    – Aron
    Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 2:07

It is probably safe.

But downloading over https should be preferred if possible.

Without https:

  • If there is a flaw in the signature mechanism, it can be exploited (example: https://github.com/QubesOS/qubes-issues/issues/2520 )

  • An attacker can know which firmware/version you install (so if there is known flaws in that firmware/version , it could be exploited)

  • If the downloaded file is not just the bin file of the firmware but an executable, a modified version couldn't install a rogue firmware, but could still harm the computer

  • If the downloaded file is not just the bin file of the firmware but contains additional inflammations for the update program (like pre-update script to execute) it could harm the computer

  • If the update program has flaws (like buffer overflow for invalid bin firmware file), even if the firmware couldn't be installed, it could harm the computer.

  • If the firmware encryption keys are stolen, https add a significant protection.

  • An attacker can replace your download by an older official firmware with known flaws: it will pass the signature spec but you will be vulnerable.

  • 12
    +1 for that last point, would never have thought of that Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 14:23
  • @OlleKelderman Though in that case the user (or even the updating router) might be worried when noticing that this is in fact a firmware downgrade instead of upgrade. Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 18:49
  • 2
    @HagenvonEitzen if said user/router notices, which most likely is not always the case Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 18:53

Probably there's a digital signature on the firmware and a key on the router. If the update file is tampered somehow, the signature verification will fail and the router will reject the update.

It works, but employing SSL would be better.

  • 2
    It is likely going to be easier to find a vulnerability in SSL or any trusted CA to perform the attack that way than it is to forge a valid signature to be verified with a public key already known to the router.
    – kasperd
    Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 8:06
  • @kasperd You're giving awful router vendors a lot of credit, that their signature verification code can't be trivially tricked due to bugs. Commented Jan 14, 2017 at 4:39
  • @MattNordhoff Verification of a signature is a lot easier to get correct than SSL.
    – kasperd
    Commented Jan 14, 2017 at 9:29
  • @kasperd Your faith in consumer router vendors is seriously misplaced. Commented Oct 12, 2018 at 22:30
  • @BaileyS What makes you think I have any faith in them? All I have really said is that I don't trust them to get SSL right.
    – kasperd
    Commented Oct 13, 2018 at 8:10

if the site has md5 checksum. i'd use it to verify what i downloaded has not been altered. at least I have a basis that the file I will use is safe.

  • 10
    Doesn't really help if you're using HTTP - if you can tamper the file, you can tamper the checksum too.
    – Matthew
    Commented Jan 13, 2017 at 16:10

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .