I am building an application that uses keystores as a way to securely store RSA keys and certificates.

Obviously, I need a password to retrieve my private key.

What is the proper way to store this password? I know, for example that burying it in the code is not a good idea.

I could find something useful until know and I need if for school.


2 Answers 2


So there are several ways to answer this question, but ultimately it's going to depend on your requirements and what you have available to you.

  • The simplest solution is to never store the passphrase and manually input it when required (at service start.) That can seem onerous but if the service is stable you're not likely to enter it often.

  • If you have a physical device, or if you have the ability to have host affinity (keep your virtual machine on the same physical machine all the time.) You can likely take advantage of a Trusted Platform Module embedded in your device. It's possible to store symmetric keys in a TPM (a good breakdown is here: https://security.stackexchange.com/a/51341/2678) it's not any more secure really than a passphrase on disk to an active attacker, but it is stored separately than the disk if it were to be stolen/compromised it would require more than a simple disk copy to discover.

  • The better option is you could actually store the RSA keys in the TPM itself and the TPM can handle the keying operations instead of holding them in a keystore directly. If the daemon you're using can support PKCS11 this is the best supported way. (See Virtual Smartcards: https://frankmorgner.github.io/vsmartcard/virtualsmartcard/README.html) Also the Java docs: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/technotes/guides/security/p11guide.html

These are definitely not the only ways you can do this, but it should give you some ideas.


Some common options:

  1. In your memory. Upside: no readable copy exists of the password. Downsides:
    • If you forget it, bye bye encrypted content.
    • The fact that you have to remember it limits how complex the password can be.
  2. In a password manager. Upsides: you don't have to remember it, and it can be a strong random password. Downside: the password manager itself requires a password. Upside: you just need to memorize that one password for the password manager.
  3. In a piece of paper stored in a safe or bank security deposit box. Downside: there's a plaintext physical copy of the password, and if somebody gets it they can decrypt the keys and certs. Upsides: if you forget the password you can retrieve it; if you get hit by a bus, other authorized parties can retrieve it as well (e.g., your family).

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .