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TLS-Handshake is based on public-key cryptography for symmetric key exchange, pki for server-authentication and assume the user authentication is realized trough username and password in the application layer. Wich authentication will be bind at the lower layer when channel binding is used?

In RFC 5929:

The concept of channel binding allows applications to establish that the two end-points of a secure channel at one network layer are the same as at a higher layer by binding authentication at the higher layer to the channel at the lower layer. This allows applications to delegate session protection to lower layers, which has various performance benefits.

What are the advantages of channel binding? Can someone please explain channel binding easily? Maybe with the channel binding type tls-server-end-point as an example?

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One of the motivations for channel binding is to prevent an attacker who is able to capture users' authentication credentials (e.g. OAuth tokens, session identifiers, etc) from reusing those credentials in another TLS session. By tying these credentials to a unique fingerprint of the TLS session in which they are used (by way of channel binding), they cannot be reused in another TLS session initiated by the attacker.

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