With normal means, no. Docker was intentionally designed on this security concept.
It uses the namespace functionality of the kernel to separate the processes running in a container from the on host running ones. If a way would be found, it would be considered as a security hole and it would be closed ASAP.
Although there could be system-wide configuration settings. Most typically, docker containers may run with
SYS_ADMIN, which essentially means they are capable to change IP addresses, and many other function which is available normally on the host machine. If a container runs with
SYS_ADMIN, it is essentially not really more protected as a task running in chroot.
Although this configuration is used mainly if a docker container runs as a service, like a daemon on a Linux server. On normal laptops, as its intended usage, everything runs as default. If it wouldn't be so, the docker users would be had to trust in all of the container developers they are using. Now they only have to trust the docker developers.
On the Windows version of the docker, even this wouldn't be enough. Windows docker starts a Linux VM with HyperV, and runs the docker containers in this Linux VM. Breaking out from a container would only mean a root permission on this VM, to break out to the client you had to find a hole also in the HyperV.