Windows uses its Secure Channel (
schannel.dll) for all SSL/TLS type communications. You can try to look at the Windows docs for TLS. You might also be able to use Fiddler as an SSL proxy to look at the decrypted data.
@CBHacking commented with a tool that is very useful, Microsoft Message Analyzer. It uses Fiddler behind the scenes when you use its Quick Trace Tool for live HTTP decryption. But you can also perform Post Decryption on TLS using this tool. A quote from that blog post:
Today you can capture the traffic before it is encrypted using the
Unencrypted HTTPS scenario from the Quick Trace menu. This requires
you install the Fiddler Core components, which is how we enable this
scenario. However, there are some limitations and scenarios that it
doesn’t cover, like non HTTP traffic. And not all clients and
capturing scenarios work with Fiddler. So another other option is to
decrypt after the fact.
Post decryption has its challenges too. You need the private cert and
password, which might not always be easily available. However, one
nice mitigation is that the person who does have access to the
certificate can always save the results, filtered down, and send only
that data he wants you to see. Also, we haven’t hooked up every parser
yet, however for some cases it’s a simple change and something we’ll
extend moving forward.
If you have access to the cert in which you want to use for your application, then this could be a good substitution for non-HTTP TLS traffic.