I recevied a notification that someone tried to access my Google account and it was denied, so i quickly changed the password. Google tells me the IP number in the notification and a location. I wonder if I can know the specific location or who it might have been (their social media or any other type of information)?
No, there is no way for you to know who it was. Might not even be a person, could just as well be a hacked computer that is part of a botnet trying to brute force random accounts.
The IP could tell you what ISP the person uses, and a vague geographic location that is not very precise. But that is only if who ever it was didn't use a VPN, Tor or some kind of proxy. So in practice even that info might be wrong.
Really, I wouldn't care to much about this. Make sure you have a strong password that you don't reuse and turn on two factor authentication. Stopping people from gaining access to your accounts is a much better strategy than trying to track down those who tried.