I am able to use nmap to determine open ports, basic OS information, etc. but is there anything that allows me to find out further detail of the machine's configuration?


This is called TCP/IP fingerprinting and can also be accomplished with tools such as p0f. With this technique, you can detect things like approximate uptime, topographical distance, or even estimate the level of traffic the site is serving by analyzing IP sequence IDs, but you cannot detect the amount of RAM or number of processes as those do not affect the networking stack in any observable way.

See the nmap documentation and usage information for more information on OS fingerprinting.

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