Only few things can be done currently it seems:On AMD disable the branch prediction and on Intel show that branch prediction was used:
On Linux the intel microcode patch is mostly needed to interact with the new kernel code. Similar things might apply to Microsoft.
Neither one fixes the design flaw, that is none according to Intel ;)
Patches won't applied if your virus scanner uses unsupported syscalls.Same could be potentially be true for some unpatched CPUs.
You can (only) run the powershell command provided by Microsoft to check if protection is active (https://www.powershellgallery.com/packages/SpeculationControl/1.0.1) . If the output is positive you should be fine. It should tell you if they disable the patches due to missing microcode. Example output:
BTIHardwarePresent : True
BTIWindowsSupportPresent : True
BTIWindowsSupportEnabled : True
BTIDisabledBySystemPolicy : False
BTIDisabledByNoHardwareSupport : False
KVAShadowRequired : True
KVAShadowWindowsSupportPresent : True
KVAShadowWindowsSupportEnabled : True
KVAShadowPcidEnabled : True