NOTE:I know there are similar questions out there, namely this one, but that answer is just an extraction from original paper, which didn't clarify the attack. Additionally I can see from answers there are some meaningful discussion going, so I will still post this question until further suggestion of duplicate appears.
In some literature, I have seen some vague description like:
the Meltdown vulnerability uses the cache as a side channel to leak the information found during step two. During the attack, in order to use the cache as a side-channel, the attacker must generate a significant amount of cache misses for every cache-hit, as the timing differences between the cache-miss and the cache-hit is used to gather the data.
Can somebody describe how exactly sensitive data the attacker wanted to know is determined byte by byte? and how does the page size (4096) plays a crucial part in here?