Chrome has a history of HTTPS sites I have accessed, I would like to know if there is somewhere Chrome would have stored details about the SSL certificate used to establish the connections to the various sites?
Currently there is no way yet for a Chrome extension to get access to SSL fingerprint information. According to this SO thread support for this was recently added to Firefox 62 and there is code yet to be merged in Chrome to allow this.
Once this code is merged into Chrome it would be possible to update the enhanced-history chrome extension to store and display this information.
From what I have found trying to dig around online, it does not appear this is possible. Chrome (nor any browser from what I read) stores the certificates beyond the termination of the TLS connection.
One way you can see details of the certificate is to re-establish a connection with the site and check the certificate while on the site. So if you wanted to see the certificate https://www.example.com used, you could navigate back to that site, click on the lock and "Secure" icon in the browser bar of Chrome, click the "valid" link under certificate and you will be prompted with a window containing all of the certificates information.
Otherwise, it appears there is no way to view the historic certificates used in past connections over HTTPS.