As stated in @Matthew's comment, the PHPinfo file itself does not pose a direct vulnerability, nor does it have "common exploits".
However, an exposed PHPinfo page is considered to be an information disclosure vulnerability, and may reveal significant information about other components or configurations which actually may be vulnerable.
As you have mentioned, the page displays version information for PHP, the system, Apache, MySQL; perhaps an online search for the product and version number will reveal some potential next steps (e.g. a search for "PHP 5.4.16 vulnerabilities"). Make sure to investigate the same for any installed modules as well.
If you aren't able to find any vulnerable and exposed software this way, perhaps an issue exists somewhere else on the page, maybe in the configuration of something, but it is impossible for us to know without being able to see the whole page. Identifying the vulnerability may require some background knowledge of the system and the services it is running.
Finally, it is possible that the PHPinfo page is just a small hint or perhaps a red herring, and it may be more fruitful to spend time taking a different approach. But again, it really depends on the situation, and there's no way to know for sure given the information in the question.