Can you investigate the source of the leakage? No. Others have your e-mail address and you have no control of their systems or historical knowledge of their use of the address. You don't know, as a whole, where their address lists are kept and whether those have been compromised or not. You don't know if one of your friends was at a coffee shop and their traffic was being sniffed. You don't know all possible usages/occurrences of your e-mail address and over whose architecture that address went.
Let's say that you find out that Bob somehow wound up giving your e-mail address to a spammer. It doesn't matter whether it was deliberate or accidental - a spammer now has your e-mail address. Those lists are bought and sold between spammers and the only real variable is whether you have confirmed that your e-mail is read and acted upon or not. You have no control over the sale of these lists, and Bob does not either. Additionally: what would you do with Bob? Tell a friend to lose your e-mail address? Either way, that bell can't be un-rung.