Let's say Alice wants to communicate with some server S. Eve manages that the traffic from both parties will pass her in order to impersonate server S. Now, digital certificates are supposed to provide authentication. In this scenario it should ensure the identity of the server, so that Eve is not able to impersonate S. But what prevents E to send the identical certificate from server S?
As i've understood, the digital certificate that was issued by a CA or a intermediate-CA to S has only static fields, meaning there are no fields that will change upon request. All fields are static until the certificate expires or it is revoked. A certain subset of these fields is hashed and a signature algorithm is applied to the hash using the private key of the issueing authority. The client can verify the signature by hashing the subset of fields and comparing the calculated hash with the "decrypted" signature (using the public key of the issuing authority) value that resides in the certificate.
So, if Eve just passes the certificate from S to A, A will verify that the certificate is valid and thus believe that it is communicating with S instead of E.
What am I missing here?