This does not look like malware but "only" like phishing: the attacker tries to steal login credentials from you by claiming that these are needed to proceed. These kind of attacks are very common and try to phish credentials to login to various web mail accounts or whatever the gullible victim is willing to enter in order to continue. I've got a lot of these mails myself.
Of course, there might still be some attack going on which uses some previously only bugs and specifically targets Linux to delivers the payload. But unless you are a high-value target it is unlikely that such precious exploits are wasted on you, given that getting or creating this kind of yet unknown exploits is hard and can cost a lot of money.
To summarize: you are likely not infected. But maybe be more careful in the future anyway.