I know that security-oriented products can easily protect their contents from even the most sensitive commercial x-rays, which can see objects at about 0.5µm. But let's put cost limits aside (or imagine that we have State-level resources), and think about theoretical limits.
Is there some known theoretical physics knowledge that when applied, would allow a State-sponsored organization to create an X-Ray that is capable of seeing through security devices, such as smartcards, shielded integrated circuits or even a Hardware Security Module?
Examples would be a device that uses gamma rays (which has a much smaller wavelength than conventional x-rays) or even some exotic device such as a neutrino detector (it's well known that neutrinos can pass through entire planet with low probability of interacting with any atom - can that be leveraged to bypass the device shield?).