It's very, very unlikely that it would change anything.
I think it's safe to assume that the SQL query you are injecting into is a SELECT query. Such a query does not change the content of the database, it just fetches data. If you terminated the query (e.g. with
;) and started a new INSERT or UPDATE query you could possibly change data, but it doesn't sound like you did that.
If you get no error and the site just reloads, that is probably a sign that your injection attack was detected and averted. Or that it just didn't work.
So while I don't think the SQL query you injected into changed anything, it's impossible to say anything with 100% certainty. The application could follow any arbitrary logic, and without reviewing the source code you can't really know. But let me say this: If I were you, I wouldn't be that worried about it.