These are all very old attacks. With the exception of a simple ping flood, you cannot even try to perform them using the latest version of Ubuntu, since it is not affected. You would need to download an old, unpatched copy of a vulnerable operating system such as Windows 95.
The Ping-of-Death involves sending a malformed ICMP request to a computer which crashes as a result. It is an actual DoS vulnerability leading to a crash, not a traditional bandwidth-based attack. It only affects very old systems that are vulnerable to it. In fact, the original was from 1997 and affected Windows 95 and several other contemporary systems. Any vulnerability in a system's networking stack that allows an ICMP request to crash the system could be categorized here.
A teardrop attack involves abusing IP fragmentation with oversized and overlapping payloads. When IP data is fragmented (usually in order to support routers that cannot handle large IP payloads), it contains information telling the destination system how to reassemble it. If this information is corrupt so that it specifies impossible overlap, it can cause old systems not designed to handle that to crash. Old operating systems such as, again, Windows 95 and very old Linux systems were vulnerable to this. Since then, such fragmentation-based attacks have stopped being relevant. Modern systems will gracefully handle improperly-delivered or corrupt IP fragments.
The only attack here which you can actually pull off is the ping flood (ICMP flood). This is a very simple attack involving nothing more than sending a flood of ICMP requests to the target. It only works if the attacking system has significantly more bandwidth than the victim, in which case it does nothing more than saturate the network and degrade service. This attack can be simulated using tools such as hping3. If you are performing this attack over a local network in a VM, you may need to artificially throttle the maximum network speed, since VM networking is so fast that you are unlikely to be able to generate ICMP requests at a high enough rate to cause denial of service.