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My firewall has a few ports open but traffic is only forwarded when coming from specific IP addresses (whitelisted).

When scanning these ports with nmap from a non whitelisted IP address, what state would I see those ports to be in, filtered, closed or open?

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    That depends on how your firewall reacts to requests coming from IP addresses that aren't included on the whitelist. – xorist Aug 27 '18 at 19:42
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It really depends on the firewall configuration, but almost every one will give back the default Port Closed message. If the default firewall behavior is to drop the package, it will be dropped. If is to send a RST package, you will receive a RST.

I am not aware of any firewall that responds with a Port is open, but not for you message.

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