Is it possible to encrypt a value (such as "hello world") with itself ("hello world") using an encrypting technique such as SHA256? Is that safe to do or would it be easily compromised?
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Is it possible to encrypt a value (such as "hello world") with itself ("hello world") [...]
Is it possible, but not recommended in practice (see below).
using an encrypting technique such as SHA256?
No, SHA256 is not an encryption algorithm. SHA256 is used for hashing. Maybe you meant to write AES256 rather than SHA256?
Is that safe to do or would it be easily compromised?
It's not safe to do in a practical way since you would need to retain the key to decrypt the data, but since the key is the data in your proposed scheme that would mean that this proposed encryption scheme completely defeats its own purpose!