As the image you shared indicates, this is simply the certificate used for client authentication.
Basically, your device is performing an 802.1X authentication to connect to the network. This uses an EAP method to authenticate to a RADIUS server, most of the common ones establish a TLS tunnel between the client and server to protect the user credentials.
When the EAP supplicant (i.e. client) begins the authentication with the RADIUS server, the server begins by providing it's certificate to the client. The client then needs to determine if it is going to send the credentials to the server.
Since your device is not actually connected to the network until after you authenticate, there are only limited ways it can validate the certificate and server is valid. In the case of your OS, it is prompting you for validation that this is the server you want to send your credentials.
Accepting simply allows your client to continue the authentication process. It is not installing any sort of certificate (CA or otherwise) on your device.
I don’t know if this is a trusted root certification but what does this certificate enable them to do?
It doesn't allow them to do anything. It allows your client to continue authenticating.