Partially. Full disk encryption, when done through software (e.g. LUKS), means that a compromised storage device will only ever see encrypted data, never decrypted data. It will never have access to the key. However, it would still be able to tamper with data by exploiting the malleability of non-authenticated modes which could potentially be abused to compromise the operating system (for example, the storage device could randomize any 16 byte block in XTS by toggling a single bit in the ciphertext, which can be very bad in some situations), or by exploiting weaknesses in XTS when snapshots are available to an attacker over time to leak information. Additionally, if you are booting from the drive, then a malicious MBR could be sent to the computer from the drive, loading a bootkit. Another issue is the capabilities of the storage device interface. SATA, for example, should not make a DMA attack possible, but a drive connected directly over PCIe might be able to write to system memory.