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I ran an exploit on the victim and used a msfvenom payload. I am on the victim's computer but I have not the root privileges. I tried to use getsystem command for getting privilege but it failed.

So I searched for "getting privileges in Windows 7 if get system command failed" and I found that Windows 7 is vulnerable to MS14-058. When I use that, I get root privileges.

How do I know if a target is vulnerable to what kind of post exploit? Is there any methodology for finding this. Are all hackers do googling for finding an exploit?

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Information Gathering is the step you use to determine the information you need in order to figure out how to proceed. Using the information that you gather, you then use whatever process you need to determine what might have vulnerabilities.

The most common approach is to gather versions and patch levels of the OS and any programs and look those up in databases of vulnerabilities. Google works fine for this task.

So, to be clear, Windows 7 is not vulnerable to MS14-058, but Windows 7 at a certain patch level is vulnerable. You happened to be targetting a vulnerable version.

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