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Assuming that:
- A have CertA and secret key KsA
- B have CertB and secret key KsB
A need to transfer data M to B with the requirement of confidentiality and authenticity, BUT Data encryption must be done by symmetric encryption.
How do A and B do that to achieve all the requirements?

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To solve this problem a common solution is using a Hybrid Cryptosystem.

Create a new random session key (ephemeral key) for the symmetric encryption (AES) then encrypt the data with this key with a proper mode of operation with an appropriate padding scheme as pkcs#5

key = generate_random_key()
encrypted_data = AES(k, data)

Now, A encrypts the session key with the B's public key.

encrypted_key = Encrypt(key, B_private_key)

Finally, A digitally sign everything

sign = Sign(Hash(encrypted_key || encrypted_data)

and send

Send(encrypted_data, encrypted_key, sign)

In this way;

  • data encrypted with a symmetric algorithm which is much faster than asymmtrical encryption.
  • data is confidential since encrypted with a key.
  • data is authenticated since A uses his secret key to sign, and B can verify this with A's public certificate.
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    thank you so much, very straightforward and easy to understand !!!! – Việt Dũng Lê Dec 21 '18 at 9:54
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This is how all HTTPS and TLS communications work.

2x Async certs/keys are used to create a shared secret which is used as a symmetric key for the lions share of the communication.

enter image description here

In step 6/7 of this diagram, is where the Symmetric key is created and both sides ChangeCipherSpec to make use of this newly established shared key.

  • thanks you so much, your answer is also very straightforward and give me lots of information :like: – Việt Dũng Lê Dec 21 '18 at 9:56

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