I'm asked to secure an appli web and I don't know really which steps I can follow to secure my appli web.
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I would strongly recommend you enumerate the critical assets of your web applications first. For example, consider the following:
- Does your web application process, transmit or store critical data? (Consider critical data anything that should be secret, for example user passwords).
- In case you transmit critical data, which you probably will, always consider securing your conections through TLS 1.2 or similar. This means your web application should only be accessed through HTTPS.
- In case you store critical data, I'd recommend you encrypt it with a strong algorithm like AES-128. In the special case of passwords, store the SHA-256 salted hashes instead of cleartext passwords. You should not know what your users'passwords are.
- It's most important to be aware of how you write the code of your App. You need to understand how the most relevant web attacks work and how to secure your coding against them. Check out OWASP's Top 10 attacks https://www.owasp.org/images/7/72/OWASP_Top_10-2017_%28en%29.pdf.pdf
- You need to come up with a network architecture that ensures at least minimum security. You need to protect your local network (databases and such) with a firewall solution like a well-configured WAF. If you're using a Cloud Service you could possibly use a Bastion Host in your DMZ to access to your Web Server. This is a huge world you need to explore in order to secure your network. It depends on what do you want to do and how are you trying to build it.
- Never forget about logging and monitoring. If anything goes wrong, you'll be thankfull you have logged all accesses to the Web Server and all activities in the repositores. It will help you do your own forensic investigation or at least help auditing what you're doing.
So, with all this in mind, let me conclude with this tips:
- Read the OWASP's Top 10 Attacks, and really understand it.
- Secure your network.
- Secure your critical data at transit and at rest.
- Log everything critical, from accesses to activies.
Glossary you should be familiar with:
- Man in the middle attacks
- XSS, CSRF
- Symmetric/Assymetric encryption - AES/RSA
- SQL Injection
- Hashing (specially SHA family of algorithms).