I'm not specifically familiar with how the Plus works, but I can comment on the first two questions.
To identify a card, you can look at its SAK and, if applicable, its ATS. MIFARE card identification procedures are shown in this document, on page 7. This webpage has some additional information.
To interact with the card, you'll need an NFC reader, such as an ACR122U, as well as libnfc. Libnfc's
nfc-list command will print out some basic information about any cards it detects, including the SAK and ATS (if applicable) needed to identify the card. I also made my own tool to print out basic information about a card and roughly identify it, and you can see how that works here.