Are there any obvious security risks to providing a none IT Staff member read-only Database access (through MySQL Workbench) to a Wordpress Database, if this is behind a firewall/VPN?
As per your Question, No one can give
No Answer. Because Risk is not a hacking. Security is not a providing technical security with firewall or any security devices.
Risk is a situation involving exposure to danger.
You have to understand what is a requirement of users. And according to that you need to provide only appropriate access to users. Because if you have classified data, which has permission level.
If you give access to users, you need to make sure that they can access only data which related to their permission level. Otherwise users will gain all secret information from your database without having any technical attack.
That will be a big risk ever you face.