The question How to protect from caller-id spoofing? focuses on how to protect oneself from incoming calls with spoofed caller ID information.
This question is about how to protect oneself when someone is using your number in spoofed caller ID to place calls to others (e.g. to check if a target number is still "live"). A certain subset of those called get angry, call back demanding to be taken off the call list, file complaints, get the number on blacklists that prevent legitimate use, etc.; the spoofer is hurting both the called party and the party whose number is being used. What can the latter party do to protect themselves from these consequences?