Suppose a non-root user was compromised over remote by malware that is now using
su (tty or similar) trying to login as root, trying every possible password by bruteforcing.
assume: full disk encryption with a strong passsword is in place.
goal: secure root account password.
non-goals: Protecting password from offline attacks when an attacker manages to steal
/etc/shadow and to use offline attacks against it is out of scope.
In this situation...
Are offline attacks against linux user account passwords possible?
When are strong linux user account passwords required?
Are strong linux account passwords required?
How many password can an attacker try against linux user accounts per second or per minute?
Can passsword bruteforcing against linux user account passwords be parallelized by the attacker and is bruteforcing only bound by the attackers available resources of CPU/RAM/etc.?
Or is passsword bruteforcing against linux user account passwords limited by su/pam or something? Can only be a limited number of passwords per second or per minute be tested?
Can su/pam/everything be added a (longer and longer becoming) delay when trying a wrong password to slow down bruteforce attacks?
How many random characters or dice words must a linux user account password have to be very secure? Are these the same requirements as for very secure FDE passwords or lower due to offline attacks not being possible against linux user account passwords?