I was getting interested in data privacy and looked up how users are tracked on the internet to connect the different traces to a single user. I found this:

In addition to regular cookies, pixel tags, ultrasound beacons and fingerprinting technologies, there exists other methods for tracking users, such as undeletable zombie cookies or super cookies, dynamic cookies, Silverlight Isolated Storage, IndexedDB, etc. (source)

I wonder what other methods the "etc." entails?


1 Answer 1


I suspect this list could be made much longer, but just from the top of my head:

  • E-tags and other cache mechanisms
  • HSTS (and perhaps HPKP?)
  • Local storage
  • Flash, may it rest in peace (perhaps included in "super cookies")

Basically, you can use anything that creates some sort of state in your browser, that affects the browsers behaviour towards servers. That includes a lot.

  • HPKP is being retired (a mistake in my opinion). You're right that the list could be made much longer (AudioContext, WebGL, HTML5 options, concurrency settings, canvas, etc.).
    – forest
    Aug 2, 2019 at 6:20

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