When you enter something in the search bar right before it connects to google, can an ISP see that?
No, that's a parameter that will be sent to Google after the HTTPS encrypted connection is established.
The ISPs can only see the root URL you are going to "www.google.com". The encryption between your browser and Google is the first thing established. After that, your ISP sees only encrypted data.
By default, you connect to Google with https, meaning that in most cases your ISP only sees that you are accessing Google. They don't see what you're searching for (but Google does, of course). There are exceptions here, including DoH which can potentially hide the name of the website you're visiting from your ISP. On the other hand, some parts of the world can force you to install certificates that will essentially allow your ISP (or anyone with the private key) to see your traffic without issue. This is sometimes done stealthily by criminals and governments, and sometimes it's something you agree to (ie some companies make you install their certificate so they can snoop on your traffic).
You can also access Google over plain old http, meaning that your ISP sees everything you search for on Google.
As for whether your ISP sees what you type in to the blank before you press enter, this is unlikely. Sure, some sites are capable of doing this, and do so mostly for analytics. I don't know whether Google does or not. If they do, and your connection is not secure, then your ISP can see what you type in as you type it in. I have never noticed this behavior from Google. However, there isn't really a point because they will see your completed search anyway- they don't need a character-by-character update stream.