The Windows-built-in secret store (analogous to Apple's Keyring) is called Credential Manager. See https://stackoverflow.com/questions/9221245/how-do-i-store-and-retrieve-credentials-from-the-windows-vault-credential-manage for (slightly dated but still usable) instructions on accessing it programmatically.
With that said, all that the Credential Manager does is encrypt your secrets with DPAPI and store them in a structured data store (I'm pretty sure it's in the registry). Since you're encrypting with DPAPI yourself, the Credential Manager buys you very little except possibly a bit of convenience (though DPAPI is very convenient, and so are most storage APIs).
Personally, I recommend encrypting with DPAPI and then storing the secrets in the user's Local AppData folder, in a subdirectory with your program's name (if the secret is machine-wide rather than per-user, you can use the ProgramData directory instead of AppData\Local, but of course this will make it world-readable). It's as secure as any other location reliably available in Windows, easy to delete when uninstalling the program, and easy to access. Using the current user's registry hive under Programs\ProgName is also an option, though. A database is pretty pointless unless your secrets are some kind of interrelated structured data, or you anticipate having a very large number of them. I wouldn't bother with Credential Manager unless the secrets you're storing are actually credentials and/or it's acceptable/important that your users be able to view them using the Credential Manager GUI.
With all that said, a few words of warning:
- DPAPI uses a per-user encryption key that is different on every machine. If you copy DPAPI-encrypted data from one machine to another, you won't be able to decrypt it on the second machine.
- DPAPI's encryption key is itself encrypted using a key derived from the user's password (among other things). If the user changes their password through the standard process (where the old password is provided), this is fine; the DPAPI key is decrypted and re-encrypted with the new password's derived key. If the password is reset (by an Administrator or via offline modification of the SAM data), the DPAPI key is lost forever. This is probably fine for your use case but is something you should know.
- A lot of the stuff mentioned in this answer is Windows-specific, but .NET itself is cross-platform. If you want to be allow Mac, Linux, and other platforms to run your code too, take care to avoid Windows-specific features and functions.