Previously, user authentication on Captive portal was only by his mac address. Accordingly, in wi-fi networks it was very easy to intercept the user's mac address and apply it to yourself. Captive portal could not recognize this. Now the access point and the user generate a shared key that encrypts traffic. Is it possible to use a cryptographic combination of these two fields (the simplest is a hash, for example) to authenticate the user? Or is there any other way when OWE can protect captive portal from mac-spoofing in Captive Portal?