In addition to the other answers:
The website you visited could have sent information about your visit directly to Facebook using their "Server-side API".
This doesn't need any client-side scripting technology to be enabled, because all communication happens between the 3rd party website and Facebook.
The more information you give the 3rd-party site, the more they can share with FB. The bare minimum is your IP address. If you have an account then your email address could be shared. If you make a purchase then all of that can be shared, too.
If the website used both client-side scripting and server-side communication to tell Facebook about you, then the fact your visit generated a server-side event but not a corresponding client-side event shows to them that you use an ad-blocker. This information can also be saved and potentially used to serve you different content in future.