So, technically from this set of output, we can observe that :
" cryptsetup() is using LUKS2 and LUKS2 is using Argon2i as a Key Derivation Function.
Now, this Argon2i implementation might be using HMAC as PRF and that HMAC is using SHA256 as an underlying hashing function."
MORE ON IT -
A Key Derivation Function (eg. PBKDF2, ARGON2, etc.) is generally a high-level function that needs to work with an underlying PRF (Pseudo-Random Function) and generally, it's HMAC (Hash-based Message Authentication Code).
It's not mandatory to use HMAC but generally, it is used with some Modern KDFs.
Now HMAC needs an underlying Hash Function to work and in this case, it's SHA256.
So it's like when they say "PBKDF2 with SHA256" they are saying "We use PBKDF2 which uses HMAC as Pseudo-Random Function and HMAC uses SHA256 as the underlying hashing function in it"
This theory works with most of the Modern KDFs.
Now when you look at the output again, see it as follows:
The above output tells us the properties of the PBKDF2 function (or Argon2i in this case). notice 0:pbkdf2.
The next output,
Key: 512 bits
Cipher key: 512 bits
This tells us properties of LUKS2 (Linux Unified Key Setup) notice 0:luks2, which means LUKS2 is using key derivation function - argon2i.
Also, Argon2 is a KDF.
Argon2i is optimized to resist side-channel attacks. It accesses the memory array in a password independent order.[wiki]
LUKS1 defaults to PBKDF2 while LUKS2 support Argon2i.
PBKDF2 for LUKS1 (LUKS1 header format is limiting)
Argon2i for LUKS2 (LUKS2 comes with a new header format)
*More Resources :*
PBKDF2 : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PBKDF2 | https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-132.pdf | https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2898.txt
HMAC: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMAC | https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2104.txt
LUKS: https://guardianproject.info/archive/luks/ | https://access.redhat.com/solutions/100463
ARGON2: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argon2 | https://www.cryptolux.org/images/0/0d/Argon2.pdf
Somewhat HMAC Related Stack* Question :
I hope this helps. Please comment below for clarification on any point if needed.