If a user sets up a stock Android device to use a VPN and uses the "Always-on" setting, can they be sure[1] that no traffic will leak outside of the VPN?

[1] Assuming no malware is installed by the user and the OS is not trying to deliberately circumvent the VPN secretly.

  • Are you considering VPN apps, or only the built-in VPN client? For the former, there is also a "Block connections without VPN" sub-option if "Always-on VPN" is enabled (the built-in client seems to only have the latter, but it's implemented differently so maybe the former is implied).
    – ecdsa
    Sep 30 '20 at 10:05
  • I'm open to all options, but I am just looking for one that reliably prevents any non-VPN traffic leaks without rooting the device. I recall reading somewhere that traffic can leak during boot process, etc before VPN service is functional or if the process dies, etc. I assumed someone here would know more about the potential pitfalls. Sep 30 '20 at 20:05

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