It depends on the purposes and permissions you have to use user data. Encryption is not really means of blocking third party access to the data. Databases per se are protected, so data access is already restricted to outsiders. It is more that encryption is a way for you as data processor not to have access to data that you're not supposed to have access to, but you have to store. In general, it is only reasonable (and required) that you do not collect data that you don't need.
Clearly due to particularities of passwords, you as a person do not need access, but your application does to be able to authenticate users. This particular machine-user separation of passwords is not the case with any of the other values you've listed and would rarely be the case for non-secrets.
A somewhat similar situation is when you represent a shop that stores customer credit card details. You as a shop do not need the payment information of the user, but you need to carry it from the user to the payment operator/provider. This is when your payment provider would guide you how to encrypt this data in a way that they could decrypt it without having to give you access to it.
Another possible situation might occur if you're legally required to collect e.g. personal identifiers of users to share with some authorities, but you and your organisation do not need to access this data. In this case you can store it encrypted with keys that only the corresponding authorities have. In this case you would ask them e.g. to generate a public-private pair key and share with you the public key so that you can encrypt something that only they can decrypt.
So in general you don't need to encrypt other data. It's more that you might rather not collect it.
Another aspect of privacy protection is that you're not supposed to store user personal information more than the time you need it. A good pattern to manage this is to use pseudonymisation. Basically, the idea is that you generate identifiers that are not traceable back to the personal data. Once you stop needing the personal data, you remove it, but the pseudonym that you use as identifier remains, thus becoming an anonymous user.