Say there is a SQL database that stores certain records in encrypted. A person wants deletion of a record in a way that even hard drive recovery services cannot recover it without breaking the hard drive.
Is it possible to delete records this way?
The more layers you add above the actual data, the harder it will be to securely erase it, because it could have been stored in caches, journals, etc.
Most SQL databases first store information for data modification in a rollback segment to be able to rollback the transaction. Unless a specific database has an option to securely wipe the rollback segment, you should take care of it yourself, and depending on the database, it could be hard if it is even possible.
Furthermore, for security reasons, many professional-grade databases offer a journaling feature. This is a nice recovery feature in case of a crash: you re-install a backup, and replay the journal files registered from the backup date. It guarantees that all records added since that backup are stored in the journal files.
And this does not account for possible caching operations...
Said differently, if you want to securely erase some record, you are better off storing the record directly in a file and preferably not on a SSD drive*. That way, you could rewrite the records many times with a well-known erasure pattern making the original record un-recoverable.
(*) ssd drives can write a new version of a block in a different place. Most offer a secure erasure of the full disk, unsure for the secure erasure of a disk sector.